Research on 1,3 Butanediol

In Human Clinical Trials

2019 The Effect of 1,3-Butanediol on Cycling Time-Trial Performance 

2018 The effect of 1,3-butanediol and carbohydrate supplementation on running performance   Results: There was no difference in TT completion time between the trials. 

1975 Nutritional and metabolic studies in humans with 1,3-butanediol 

General 1,3 Butanediol papers

2022 Low-dose 1,3-butanediol reverses age-associated vascular dysfunction independent of ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate

1975 Nutritional application and implication of 1,3-butanediol 

1976 Suppression by 1,3-butanediol of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats 

1981 Effects of acute and chronic 1,3-butanediol treatment on central nervous system function: a comparison with ethanol

2021 Physiologic, Metabolic, and Toxicologic Profile of 1,3-Butanediol 

2021  Periconceptional 1,3-butanediol supplementation suppresses the superimposed preeclampsia-like phenotype in the Dahl Salt-sensitive rat

2021 Leptin sensitizing effect of 1,3-butanediol and its potential mechanism

2020 1,3-Butanediol attenuates hypertension and suppresses kidney injury in female rats

2020 Neuroprotective Effect of Ketone Metabolism on Inhibiting Inflammatory Response by Regulating Macrophage Polarization After Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

2019 Dietary Inclusion of 1,3-Butanediol Increases Dam Circulating Ketones and Increases Progeny Birth Weight

2019 Exogenous Ketones Lower Blood Glucose Level in Rested and Exercised Rodent Models

2019 Acute hyperketonaemia alters T-cell-related cytokine gene expression within stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells following prolonged exercise

             Acute hyperketonaemia appears to transiently amplify the initiation of the pro-inflammatory T-cell-related IFN-γ response to an immune challenge in vitro during and following prolonged, strenuous exercise; suggesting enhanced type-1 T-cell immunity at the gene level.


LD50 is a standard way to measure the toxicity of a molecule. It stands for Lethal Dose where 50% of the animals die.

LD50 Ethanol is  >7.692 g/kg body weight for a Rat. For a 70 kilo human this would equate to 538 grams of alcohol (about 40 beers). (cite)

LD50 of 1,3 Butanediol is LD50 Rat 18.61 g/kg body weight for a Rat. For a 70 kilo human this would equate to 1,302 grams of 1,3 Butanediol. (cite)

Therefore it takes 2.5x more 1,3 Butanediol to kill a rat versus alcohol.

1,3 Butanediol is also referred to as 1,3-Butylene glycol.