In Human Clinical Trials
2019 The Effect of 1,3-Butanediol on Cycling Time-Trial Performance
2018 The effect of 1,3-butanediol and carbohydrate supplementation on running performance Results: There was no difference in TT completion time between the trials.
1975 Nutritional and metabolic studies in humans with 1,3-butanediol
General 1,3 Butanediol papers
2022 Low-dose 1,3-butanediol reverses age-associated vascular dysfunction independent of ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate
1975 Nutritional application and implication of 1,3-butanediol
1976 Suppression by 1,3-butanediol of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats
1981 Effects of acute and chronic 1,3-butanediol treatment on central nervous system function: a comparison with ethanol
2021 Physiologic, Metabolic, and Toxicologic Profile of 1,3-Butanediol
2021 Periconceptional 1,3-butanediol supplementation suppresses the superimposed preeclampsia-like phenotype in the Dahl Salt-sensitive rat
2021 Leptin sensitizing effect of 1,3-butanediol and its potential mechanism
2020 1,3-Butanediol attenuates hypertension and suppresses kidney injury in female rats
2020 Neuroprotective Effect of Ketone Metabolism on Inhibiting Inflammatory Response by Regulating Macrophage Polarization After Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
2019 Dietary Inclusion of 1,3-Butanediol Increases Dam Circulating Ketones and Increases Progeny Birth Weight
2019 Exogenous Ketones Lower Blood Glucose Level in Rested and Exercised Rodent Models
2019 Acute hyperketonaemia alters T-cell-related cytokine gene expression within stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells following prolonged exercise
Acute hyperketonaemia appears to transiently amplify the initiation of the pro-inflammatory T-cell-related IFN-γ response to an immune challenge in vitro during and following prolonged, strenuous exercise; suggesting enhanced type-1 T-cell immunity at the gene level.
LD50 is a standard way to measure the toxicity of a molecule. It stands for Lethal Dose where 50% of the animals die.
LD50 Ethanol is >7.692 g/kg body weight for a Rat. For a 70 kilo human this would equate to 538 grams of alcohol (about 40 beers). (cite)
LD50 of 1,3 Butanediol is LD50 Rat 18.61 g/kg body weight for a Rat. For a 70 kilo human this would equate to 1,302 grams of 1,3 Butanediol. (cite)
Therefore it takes 2.5x more 1,3 Butanediol to kill a rat versus alcohol.
1,3 Butanediol is also referred to as 1,3-Butylene glycol.